By Neal H. Atebara, MD
Discusses present functions of optical phenomena, together with the optical foundations of lasers, spectacles, IOLs and refractive surgical procedure. offers optics of the human eye; uncomplicated thoughts of geometric optics; ophthalmic tools and get in touch with lenses. Discusses imaginative and prescient rehabilitation from the epidemiology of imaginative and prescient impairment, class of visible functionality deficits, sufferer evaluation and occasional imaginative and prescient administration. final significant revision 2009 2010.
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 3: Clinical Optics (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
CHAPTER 1: Physical Optics. 21 Polarization Many lasers emit linearly polarized light. Polarization is incorporated in the laser system to allow maximum transm ission through the laser medium without loss caused by reflection . Intensity In most med ical applications. the most important property of lasers is intensity. Intensity is the power in a beam of a given angular size. and the physical correlate of the perception of "brightness" is the intensity per u nit area. In medi cal laser applications.
Lasers are usually named for the active medium. The medium can be a gas (argon, krypton, carbon dioxide, argon-fluoride excimer, or helium with neon), a liquid (dye), a solid (an active element supported by a crystal, such as neodymium supported by yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Nd:YAGj and erbium supported by yttrium-lanthanum-fluo ride [Er :YLF]), or a semiconductor (diode). The second requirement fo r a laser is a means of imparting energy to the active medium so that a majority of the atoms are in an energy state higher than the ground state.
Polarization. and. to some degree. monochromaticity enhance the most important cha racteristi c of lasers. whi ch is light intensity. The sun has a powe r of 10 26 watts but emits energy in all directions at a great distance from th e earth. Thus. a simple I-mW helium neon lase r has 100 times the radian ce of the sun. Thei r intense rad iance. combined with monochromaticity that can target selected tissues and avoid others on the basis of spectral absorption. makes lasers a unique tool in med icine.