A Turning Point in Mamluk History: The Third Reign of by Amalia Levanoni

By Amalia Levanoni

This article offers with the method of decline of the Mameluk nation (1250-1517). Its major thesis is that the origins of this method are to be present in the 3rd reign of al-Nasir Muhammad Ibn Qalawun, and extra particularly within the adjustments he effected within the Mameluk process. The Mameluk military used to be the 1st to be faced with those adjustments, whose impression at the social and political lifetime of the Mameluk elite was once already felt in the course of al-Nasir's lifetime. this article follows the advancements to the tip of self reliant Mameluk rule and divulges the transformation they wrought within the Mameluk code of values and political options. a last bankruptcy bargains with the final monetary decline of the Mameluk nation and establishes the hyperlink of its a number of factors - demographic decline, financial crises, the cave in of agriculture and - with Mameluk executive misrule. the belief is reached that it was once al-Nasir's expenditure coverage and its repercussions at the financial reform which exhibit his reign as some extent of no go back.

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Zubda, fol. 52a; al-Nuwayri, 19B, fol. 103a; (Iqd (Amin), 1, pp. 318-319. "52 From Baybars al-Manşüri we learn that his purchase at an early age was not an extraordinary event at all. During the initial period of his training, al-Manşüri was one of a number of boys who because of their young age were put together to form a class: "I was one of the young boys [kuntu ma'düdan fi jumlat al-sibyän al-şighâr]"53 Additional evidence can be found in the biographies of several amirs. 58 Zayn al-DIn Kitbughä al-Manşüri was bought by Qaläwün from among the prisoners taken at the first battle of Himş against the Mongols (659/1260) when he was "a lad, or possibly an adolescent [wa-huwa shäbb wa-lacallahu kâna fi sinn bulügh al-hilm\\59 Al-Nuwayrï provides a conflicting version of this story and claims that Kitbughä was already an adult at the time of his purchase from among the prisoners.

249; 10, pp. 75-76, 198-199, 287; Sulük, 2, pp. 92, 93, 94, 102-103, 104-105, 107-111, 115, 117-118, 128, 168; Durar, 2, pp. 4, 18-19; 3, p. 338; 5, p. 171; Tadhkira, 2, pp. 32, 37, 38, 39, 47; Ibn alDawädäri, 9, pp. 197-211, 212-216, 218-220, 225-235, 243; al-Nuwayri, 20, fols. 49b, 51a, 52a-b, 53a, 54a, 56a, 58b, 59a, 64b, 69a, 74a; 2N, fol. 16a; Nujüm, 9, pp. 13, 14, 15-16, 17, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 33-34, 41; Zetterstéen, pp. 146, 147, 151-152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157-158, 160, 163; al-Safadi, fols.

202b-203a; al-Nuwayri, 2N, fols. 91a, 93a, 95a; Ibn al-Furät, 8, p. 179. 15 Ibn al-Furät, 8, pp. 174, 183, 192; al-Nuwayri, 2N, fols. 68a, 69a, 71a; Zubda, fols. 187a, 20lb, 202a-b. 16 Zubda, fols. 192a-b, 198b, 206a-b, 246a-b, Durar, 2, p. 15; compare these examples with Baybars's and Qaläwün's appeasing attitudes towards their political rivals: al-Yünini, 2, pp. 413, 459, 479; 2907/E3, fols. 45a, 46a, 46b, 47ab, 48a, 52b, 66a, 142a-b; Zubda, fols. 103b-104a, 160a; Wäfi, 10, p. 281; Ibn al-Furät, 8, p.

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