By Ki-Han Kim, Georges Chahine, Jean-Pierre Franc, Ayat Karimi
This publication offers a finished remedy of the cavitation erosion phenomenon and cutting-edge study within the box. it really is divided into elements. half 1 comprises seven chapters, delivering quite a lot of computational and experimental ways to cavitation erosion. It contains a normal creation to cavitation and cavitation erosion a close description of amenities and size suggestions general in cavitation erosion experiences, an in depth presentation of assorted levels of cavitation harm (including incubation and mass loss) and insights into the contribution of computational tips on how to the research of either fluid and fabric habit. The proposed strategy relies on an in depth description of impression lots generated by way of collapsing cavitation bubbles and a actual research of the cloth reaction to those a lot. half 2 is dedicated to a variety of 9 papers provided on the foreign Workshop on complicated Experimental and Numerical strategies for Cavitation Erosion Prediction (Grenoble, France, 1-2 March 2011) representing the vanguard of analysis on cavitation erosion. leading edge numerical and experimental investigations illustrate the main complex breakthroughs in cavitation erosion learn.
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Additional resources for Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion Prediction
10 Cross sectional TEM micrographs showing microstructural arrangements at subsurface layers of eroded samples, a. stainless steel 18–12, micro twins and dislocation loops at depth of about 10 lm from surface (reproduced from Acta Metallurgica 37(1989) 1079, with permission from Elsevier), b. stainless steel 18–12, dislocation patterns at depth of about 100 lm, c. deformation twins in copper at depth of 10 lm, d. dislocation cells in copper at depth of about 500 lm. The strain rates for these pictures correspond to cavitation, which is highlighted in Fig.
This can be understood easily if one considers the acoustic field generated by the imposed amplitude motion of the tip of the horn given by: XðtÞ ¼ A cosð2pf tÞ; ð2:1Þ where XðtÞ is the vertical position of the tip of the horn at instant t, A the amplitude and f the frequency of the tip vibratory oscillations. The resulting acoustic pressure is given by: p ¼ ql cl X_ ¼ À2pf ql cl A sinð2pf tÞ; ð2:2Þ where ql is the liquid density and cl is the sound speed in the liquid. Typically, the vibratory device operates at 20 kHz and the amplitude of the horn tip motion, A, is maintained at 25 lm with the help of a bifilar microscope.
For lower rates where the plasticity is controlled by dislocation dynamics and thermally activated processes (_e\103 sÀ1 ), the effect of strain rate is weak. In contrast, at higher strain rates where the plasticity is controlled by velocity dependent viscous drag on dislocation motion (_e [ 103 sÀ1 ), the effects of strain rate is more pronounced and obeys to more complex power law functions [30, 31]. Due to the random distribution of bubble collapses both in time and in space, one can expect that during the cavitation erosion of materials both dislocation mechanisms operate simultaneously, but that the preponderance of either of these deformation processes will depend on flow characteristics and cavitation types.