By Frederick W. Alt
Advances in Immunology, a common and hugely revered e-book, provides present advancements in addition to finished reports in immunology. Articles handle the big variety of issues that include immunology, together with molecular and mobile activation mechanisms, phylogeny and molecular evolution, and medical modalities. Edited and authored by means of the main scientists within the box, each one quantity offers updated details and instructions for destiny learn.
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Additional resources for Advances in Immunology, Vol. 97
1991), and cytolytic T cells form a specialized synapse, where lytic granules polarize along with the MTOC toward the target 29 T Cell Activation and the Cytoskeleton APC MHC CD4 TCR LAT Dynein FYN ZAP70 + LCK ADAP PLCγ1 T cell SL P7 ADAP IP3 Dynein + IQGAP1 mDIA1? 6 Ca+2 VAV1 + Polarity secretion + −Ac −Ac −Ac ? 3 Regulation of TCR-mediated MTOC polarization. Upon APC recognition, the MTOC reorients to a region just beneath the T cell–APC contact site. This MTOC polarization relies on several TCR proximal events, including activation of various kinases, SLP76 and VAV1 recruitment, as well as Ca2þ mobilization.
2001). , 2006). Moreover, links established between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton are likely crucial in endocytic processes occurring during IS formation. Unfortunately, the putative actin regulators controlling MTOC polarization are largely unknown. , 2007) (Fig. 3). Actinnucleating FMNL1 and mDIA1 co-localized near the centrosome and controlled MTOC polarity and cell-mediated killing, whereas TCRmediated MTOC repositioning was unexpectedly ARP2/3-independent. Moreover, FMNL1 and mDIA1 display strikingly different patterns of MTOC co-localization and loss of either FMNL1 or mDIA1 individually affects MTOC reorientation, suggesting that they are not functionally redundant in this regard.
2007). Nevertheless, for the most part, these molecules are TCR proximal components, which affect many pathways downstream of the TCR. Therefore, the molecular signaling pathways, which are directly involved in the physical movement of the MTOC following TCR engagement, have not been defined. , 2006), and are then released toward the engaged APC or target cell (Fig. 3). , 1991), and cytolytic T cells form a specialized synapse, where lytic granules polarize along with the MTOC toward the target 29 T Cell Activation and the Cytoskeleton APC MHC CD4 TCR LAT Dynein FYN ZAP70 + LCK ADAP PLCγ1 T cell SL P7 ADAP IP3 Dynein + IQGAP1 mDIA1?