By Gerald Berk
Alternative Tracks offers a singular interpretation of industrialization and political improvement within the usa. concentrating on the serious case of railroads, Gerald Berk exhibits that substitute types of financial association and governmental law existed within the overdue 19th century. Constitutional offerings, no longer technological imperatives or monetary pursuits, decided the result within the 20th century: a centralized regulated in line with liberal rules of redistribution. Alternative Tracks finds a nineteenth-century rival to this political economy―an both effective and extra democratic procedure of neighborhood railroads regulated in response to republican principles.
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Additional resources for Alternative Tracks: The Constitution of American Industrial Order, 1865-1917
Eliot and renewed 1971 by Esme Valerie Eliot, reprinted by permission of Harcourt Brace & Company Page vii Contents Preface ix Acknowledgments xv 1 Policy Implementation and Organizational Actions: Interpretations and Texts 1 What is Interpretive Analysis? 4 Symbolic Relationships: Language, Objects, and Acts as Artifacts 9 Interpreting Policies: Artifacts and Policy Meanings 13 Identity Stories: Public Policies as Texts, Clients and Others as Readers 22 Links with Postmodern and Other Theories of Multivocality 27 How did One Policy Mean?
We act; we have intentions about our actions; we interpret others' actions. We make sense of the world: we are meaning-making creatures. Our social institutions, our policies, our agencies are human creations, not objects independent of us. In restricting their explorations to knowledge based on the experience of the senses, positivist philosophies of human endeavor neglect some of what we take as essential elements of human life: meaningful experiences, such as the appreciation of a sunset; novel and creative acts; emotions and motivations; social institutions; cultural belief systems; conceptual communication, including both written and spoken words and nonverbal acts.
Prohibitionists used legislation to make a public identity statementto themselves as well as to their oppositionthat validated one status, one set of values, beliefs, and feelings, over another. Symbolic language, objects, and acts are often separable only analytically. Typically, they are intertwined. In the 1992 Republican National Convention in Texas, for example, the massive columns that soared from the stage toward the roof reminded many of the architectural designs of the Third Reich, serving thereby as symbolic objects to convey feelings about fascist belief systems (which not a few people saw further reflected in Pat Buchanan's address eliminating "feminists" and homosexuals from the Republican Party's "big tent").